A third explanation is the rise of the caesarean section, which is now how almost a third of American babies come into the world. Babies collect a rich broth of microbes from their mothers, but this transfer does not occur in the womb as one might expect. Instead, they are smeared with bacteria as they pass through the birth canal – if they pass through the birth canal. This may explain the otherwise-puzzling fact that babies born by caesarean section suffer more from asthma and allergies. It also explains the mysterious behaviour of Rob Knight, a microbial ecologist whose baby daughter was born by emergency caesarean section in 2012. Concerned that the baby had bypassed the microbes of the birth canal, Professor Knight waited until the doctors and nurses were out of the room, then rubbed his baby with a swab coated in her mother’s vaginal fluids in an effort to colonise his daughter’s skin with those maternal microbes. That was speculative – Wild West science in the tradition of Barry Marshall. But Professor Knight is now running a controlled study of much the same technique with babies born by caesarean section in Puerto Rico.
Messy: How to Be Creative and Resilient in a Tidy-Minded World